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Linux Vs Bsd

29.07.2010 (8:31 am) – Filed under: Linux ::

What is a BSD Unix?

BSD family of Unix systems is based upon the source code of real Unix developed in Bell Labs, which was later purchased by the University of California – “Berkeley Software Distribution”. The contemporary BSD systems stand on the source code that was released in the beginning of 1990′s (Net/2 Lite and 386/BSD release).

BSD is behind the philosophy of TCP/IP networking and the Internet thereof; it is a developed Unix system with advanced features. Except for proprietary BSD/OS, the development of which was discontinued, there are currently four BSD systems available: FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and Mac OS X, which is derived from FreeBSD. There are also various forks of these, like PC-BSD – a FreeBSD clone, or MirOS, an OpenBSD clone. The intention of such forks is to include various characteristics missing in the above BSD systems, on which these (forks), no matter how well they are designed, only strongly depend. PC-BSD, for example, has more graphical features than FreeBSD, but there are no substantial differences between these two. PC-BSD cannot breathe without FreeBSD; FreeBSD or OpenBSD are independent of one another.

What is Linux?

Albeit users like to use the term “Linux” for any Linux distro including its packages (Red Hat Linux, Mandrake Linux, etc.), for IT professionals Linux is only the kernel. Linux started in 1991, when its author, Linus Torvals, began his work on a free replacement of Minix. Developers of quite a few Linux system utilities used the source code from BSD, as both these systems started parallelly in about the same time (1992-1993) as Open Source.

Today, there are a few, if not many developers of their own kernels/operating systems (FreeDOS, Agnix, ReactOS, Inferno, etc.), but these guys simply missed the right train in the right hour. They did not lose anything except for the fact that they may be even better programmers, but without the public opinion acknowledging this at large. Linus built his fame also from work of many developers and he went on board in the right time. Linus deserves a credit as a software idea policy maker and he helped very much in this respect.

(Open)BSD vs Linux

It is often difficult to say what is better if you compare two things without regarding the purpose of their use. Mobile Internet may appear better for someone who travels often, but for people working at home such mobility is not necessary. In this view, it is a stupid question when someone asks: “What is better, a mobile or static Internet?” It all depends…

If you compare Linux and OpenBSD in their desktop environment features, Linux offers more applications than OpenBSD; but in a server solution BSD systems are known to be robust, more stable and secure, and without so many patches distributors release soon after their new version of Linux slithered to light.

BSD systems are based upon real Unix source code contrary to Linux, which was developed from scratch (kernel).

Differences between BSD and Linux

1) BSD license allows users/companies to modify a program’s source code and not to release changes to the public. In other words, BSD licenses allow commercial use and incorporation of a code into proprietary commercial products. This is how Microsoft incorporated BSD networking into their products and how Mac OS X earns money through muscles of FreeBSD.

Linux uses GPL license for most of the time (applications in Linux can also have a BSD license – or any license; it is up to developers how they decide). With a GPL-licensed program anybody can change the source code, but he or she MUST share it with the Open Source community to make sure that everybody will benefit from such a change.

2) BSD has the so-called “core system” (without packages). The core system consists of basic utilities (like ssh, fdisk, various commands like chmod or sysctl, manual pages, etc.) and anything beyond this is strictly seen as an add-on. Linux (not only the kernel, of course) is usually packaged as the whole system where this difference is not seen.

3) On BSD systems, all add-on packages are strictly installed into the /usr/local directory: documents to user/local/share/docs/application_name; themes and other things to /usr/local/share/application_name; binaries to /usr/local/bin/application_name. By application_name we mean a program’s name, so if you install IceWM, for example, its binary will be here: /usr/local/bin/icewm. With Linux, on the other hand, all applications get mostly installed into the /usr/bin directory.

4) BSD systems use the system of “ports”, which are fingerprints of applications in the /usr/ports directory, where a user may “cd” and execute a make command, which will download, via a directive contained in such a fingerprint’s code, the application’s source and the system will compile it as well. “Ports” are actually add-on packages for BSD systems and they are also packaged in packages repository of a concrete BSD system. They can be installed as binaries, too, with use of the “pkg_add” either directly from the Internet or locally. But “ports” have that advantage that if an author of any package makes a new version, a user can immediately get its newest/updated version. Packages released for a particular BSD version (like OpenBSD 4.1) are not updated and users have to wait for a new BSD release (like OpenBSD 4.2).

5) BSD systems have also their stable version. With FreeBSD, for example, you have a FreeBSD-Release (a version that can be used normally), FreeBSD-Stable (system more profoundly audited for bugs and security holes), and a development version – Current, which is not stable and not recommended for a regular use. Some Linux distributions started to imitate this philosophy, but with BSD systems this way of making distributions has become a rule.

6) Of course, the kernel is absolutely different.

7) BSD has FFS file system; it is the only file system on BSD’s contrary to Linux, where you can use dozens of file systems like ext2, ext3, ReiserFS, XFS, etc.

8) BSD systems divide their partitions internally. This means that after installing a BSD system to a hard disk, programs like fdisk, Partition Magic, Norton Ghost and many others will not see this internal division of a BSD (FFS) disk; thus, repartitioning of a disk is not such a pain when administrators require a rigorous partitioning (for /home, /tmp, /var, /etc directories). As a consequence, the naming convention also differs a little: a disk – /dev/ad0s3b in FreeBSD indicates that you deal with “slice” 3 (“s3″), which is the equivalent of Linux /dev/hda3; the internal “partition” has the name of a letter: “a”, “b”, “e”, etc. (“b” is a swap partition). BSD systems also use different naming conventions for devices (disks, etc.).

9) Unless you make a good kernel hack, BSD systems can only be installed into the primary partition. This is not the rule with Linux. However, as BSD systems offer the above-mentioned internal division of partitions, this is not any pain. PC architecture for disks (IDE) follows the rule that you can have only four primary partitions. We will illustrate this on Linux: /dev/hda1 (note: first partition on master disk on first IDE channel), /dev/hda2 (second partition), /dev/hda3 (third partition), /dev/hda4 (fourth partition). PC architecture allows creation of the so-called logical disk on a physical disk (/dev/hda5, /dev/hda6, etc.). You can have as many logical disks/partitions as you wish and you can also install Linux into these “logical disks”. On the other hand, installing a BSD OS into such a “logical partition” is not normally possible.

10) System configuration is manual for most of the time, but various clones like PC-BSD break this convention. The manual approach is a very good thing, as administrators have everything under control without being pushed to waste time in a labyrinth of bloated configuration menus. A good comparison is to imagine a car mechanic repairing the car’s engine covered by a thick blanket. To give you even a little better example – you will hardly find a Linux distro that does not have a default X startup (graphical environment). Of course, you can switch off the X environment during the installation configuration, but if you keep forgetting like me and forget to switch this off, or you have difficulties to find it in the menu somewhere, you realize that most Linux distributors do indeed impose on us only one approach – to put our fingers first on the thick blanket, then on the engine. If you are a good administrator, you do not usually trust vendors who program you how to use Linux – you are the boss and you must have your own freedom. However, in most cases you lose few hours instead by deactivating various services, which are, unfortunately, not even necessary but almost always activated by default. Linux is praised both for being a good desktop and server, but administrators of a good server do not need X. The more software is stored on your hard disk, the more security problems you will face, because it is impossible to audit every package in every unthinkable situation. Good and secure systems are always tight, light and simple.

11) All BSD systems have a Linux emulation support. Running BSD binaries on Linux is a little harder.

12) BSD systems have less support from driver vendors, thus they lag behind in this view (they are not worse, but many vendors support only Microsoft and Linux). With a BSD system you must carefully research the Internet for supported products/chipsets before purchasing any hardware.

13) BSD systems do not use the Unix System V “runlevel scripts” (initialization startup scripts) like Linux.

14) BSD kernels can be set to several security levels. This is also possible with Linux, but BSD’s have taken a very good care of this kernel-tuning feature, which makes it even impossible to change something in files in higher security levels – you cannot delete them.

15) BSD’s have everything under one ROOF. Various Linux programs are often not even compatible with other Linuces. For example, if you install a SuSE RPM package on Mandrake, it may not work. BSD’s have one solid crown of power. If you move from Linux to FreeBSD, you will soon find out that you got out of this chaos. Do you want a package? Just visit: http://www.freebsd.org/ports/ and download it. Unless its developer made some programming errors, it will always work.

16) Generally, BSD systems boot and reboot faster than Linux. Linux can do this, too, but it must be tuned. It is very surprising that Linux is shipped, on the one hand, on huge DVD’s and, on the other hand, it has a compressed kernel. BSD systems do not use (but they can) a default kernel that is compressed, thus the system boots always faster. As I mentioned earlier in this article, Linux vendors program users to use various, often unnecessary services. I do not need SAMBA (file and print services) and many other things as well. Linux reboot process takes longer because various services running on Linux need time for deactivation. Many Linux users do not even know what is the purpose of these services.

17) In comparison to BSD, most Linux distributions are overbloated. Few good users noticed this some time ago and a new trend in the Linux world started with ideas to get closer to a BSD-style use. One of such distributions is Gentoo Linux, but also Slackware Linux, which has preserved a very good shape since its first release (1993). The Gentoo “About” page (http://www.gentoo.org) says that, “Gentoo is a free operating system based on either Linux or FreeBSD…” Therefore, if you use Slackware or Gentoo, these Linuces will always reboot faster than any other Linux.

18) If you compile programs from ports, you will not stumble into compilation errors. BSD packagers prepare their packages carefully, so that users will always compile them successfully. This does not always happen with Linux.


I am the author of One Floppy CD Audio and MP3 Player, and a single floppy OpenBSD router. I really like all BSD systems. If you are interested, look into FreeBSD documentation, which is one of the best. It will give you a very good overview of history and hard work done in the development of these robust systems. Today, BSD Unices are the only quality alternative to Linux in the Open Source world.

Copyright (c) Juraj Sipos

Author’s website about FreeBSD and OpenBSD

The Origin of Linux Distribution

25.07.2010 (4:28 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized ::

“Linux Distribution” or call briefly that is “Linux Distro” which born from the requirement Distribute Linux Operating System go to the favor extensively. The “Distribution” word is the extensively meaning there is appear in every the society, there is person group want to announce the idea of oneself goes out to others.

For linux distro that is person group they want to announce linux operating system to others turn to take an interest and lead the linux operating system to be usable more and more extensively there. The power adds that make up the linux distro that have as follows.

First, because of in the age at linux start the internet system still have a few speed extremely then not convenient to download linux kernel and all linux components come to set up because more will fully completed download it get time long ago. So, CD-ROM saller group for sets up a linux program then important duty first of linux distribution.

The second points, is in the age at this first also at all program at the components of linux operating system still during of development goes to according to one’s ability of program developer from the worldwide, thus leading linux to usable have rather a little moderately, So mostly software that distribute then is in “source code” which the lead will go to usable must use the technical step that calls “Program Compilation” then make not convenient or almost impossible to build the favor happen in group of newcomer users quickly follows the aim of linux distribution. So the linux distro group must prepare operating system software of oneself are in fully use actually then get achieve.

The third points, that is the hard step for linux operating system installation must touch redesign for easyly most don’t differ from order calling setup command in windows installation, including setting all the usability and refining the system for just boot with Linux CD-ROM and click next go to continually already you will have linux operating system that want, simple that is linux distro must making usability linux get into simple for general person.
So, linux distribution then group of person are the organization there is the objective to announce the operating system that uses linux for kernel to general person to extensively usability by operate beneath the regulation of the OpenSource community and FREE Software which in now have linux distribution increase greatly.

This is the basic about the origin of linux operating system and linux distro distributing to other linux users. Linux learning is easiest in now vendor of each linux distro they has created it for easy to use and easy fast install, So you can learn on same the windows os.

For More Linux Information And Resources Such As Linux Certification, Linux Hosting, Linux Installation, Linux Security And Much More About Linux OS, Please Visit : RedhatCert.com

Choosing the Best Cheap Hosting Tips

21.07.2010 (4:46 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized ::

If you are looking for an exceptional web hosting company but on a strict budget then please read this document. There is a lot to be said for cheap web hosting, even if you have heard otherwise, there are some excellent services that will not break the bank. We hope to discuss a a few key factors for choosing the best cheap hosting company, and other facts.

We feel the first thing you should do is determine how much you wish to spend. Contrary to popular belief, you can get excellent hosting packages for under a month, which will have adequate disk storage, bandwidth, add-ons and impressive customer support, and also other options. You should make sure the hosting or package you choose is going to be sufficient for what your objectives are, below are some ideas on things you should consider and use as a guide whilst researching.

Reputation – This is quite possibly one of the most important factors you should take into consideration. Visit some web hosting forums, and even web hosting review sites. You can get a lot of good and bad information about a company through this method. We advise that you use Google or Yahoo and enter a search this way “FatCow Review” or “Hostmonster Review” or “Review HostGator”.

Reliability – This goes without needing too much discussion. Basically if your website is down, slow or showing errors, visitors are just not likely to visit again, which in turn will ruin your web business.

Support – You want to feel at ease knowing someone is there when you require them. Determine the business hours. Billing typically can wait, however, if your site is down, or your email stops working, you need a technician to be able to assist you to at all times.

It is wise to ask the hosting company for their zip file run a a speed test on their line. You should try this test a couple of times at different hours, and during peak times. It is crucial that you will not get put on a node which is oversold. This relates to the reliability factor.

Finally, find out if the company has a money back guarantee. Many reputable cheap web hosting companies will offer a 10 to 30 day money back guarantee if you are dissatisfied. This time frame will give you the opportunity to test drive the service and be sure it meets the criteria you are seeking.

In general you should not have any problem choosing the best cheap hosting company as long as you do a bit of research before purchasing. Be sure you use the few tips we talked about above, and be aware of what others state about the provider.

Top 10 web hosting- is it really trustful

17.07.2010 (9:26 pm) – Filed under: Uncategorized ::

All people want to make right choice when web hosting is concerned. However, this decision is sometimes very hard due to the great variety offered on the market. As you know, people do not tend to find it easier when they are spoilt for choice but just on the contrary: it is much more difficult because they want to make the best possible decision. Another reason why we feel so confused when choosing the web hosting is that everybody promises that they are the best. And as we know, there is just no way everyone to be the best which is why we feel doubts about all web hosting providers! Perhaps, you are asking yourself: “Wouldn’t it be easier if there is info about the top 10 web hosting providers?” Of course, it would be easier! But the truth is that information about the top 10 web hosting offers does exist and you can find it on our website. It is represented in the best possible way. Do you wonder what it is? Well, we have placed all the information about the 10 most popular web hosting providers in a table so that it is well arranged and clear. Honestly, it will not take you more than 10 minutes to read everything about each of the top 10 web hosting offers. However, it is also great that you are not going to experience any problems with memorizing of the info. Basically, you will take a look at the table for a couple of minutes and you will have already memorized everything but, most importantly, you will have also made your final decision on the best web hosting for you. All you need to do in order to get this crucial information is go to our website and choose the category named top 10 web hosting. Then the table we have been discussing will appear and you will see that it is exactly as easy as it is described (there are not exaggerations)! Another reason why we feel so confused when choosing the web hosting is that everybody promises that they are the best. And as we know, there is just no way everyone to be the best which is why we feel doubts about all web hosting providers! Well, what are you waiting for? Have you gone to our website already? Do not forget that only two clicks with your mouse separate you from making your best choice.

Reseller Web Hosting Explained

11.07.2010 (4:56 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized ::

Reseller web hosting is a web hosting service that re-bundles services available from real hosts or primary providers. Reseller web hosting could be an individual or small business that makes use of the bandwidth and web servers of a higher tier provider or primary host and resells the same to the customers by offering value added services like web designing, domain registration and web programming.

Most real hosting companies allow reseller web hosting in order to boost their sales. Recently, a significant number of web hosting businesses have infiltrated the internet with an eye on the ever-growing number of people who are jumping online. In order to remain competitive, hosting companies look for ways to market their services to a greater number of people rather than offering their services individually. This leads to the business of reseller web hosting accounts. In reseller web hosting, real hosts are able to generate bulk businesses and delegate individual clients to reseller servers. In turn, reseller web hosting businesses look after some individual client’s needs. This is a win-win situation for both, since real hosts will have an intermediary in the form of reseller web hosting to individual customers without having to attend to them one by one. The reseller is also able to put up a business and earn income without having to shell out capital outlays. Although in some instances they do compete with each other for a fair share of the web hosting market, the real hosts can still benefit from this set-up considering they do charge a certain amount from resellers.

The services offered by a reseller web hosting service do not really differ from a real host. As a matter of fact, reseller web hosting offers more features to the customers. Due to the added value services, reseller web hosting can offer web design and programming services to each customer that are often times not possible from real hosts. Real hosts tend to focus on bulk accounts and corporate clients. Reseller web hosting offers value added services to customers in order to maintain a competitive edge against bigger web hosting services.

Reseller web hosting is also better able to establish friendly relationship with their customers that go beyond the contract terms. This is the secret for those successful reseller web-hosting services. They fill the need that bigger hosting servers cannot provide. Those who want to start a reseller web hosting business are advised to look for a real host, such as Hostgator or SpeedHostingZ.com. It is very easy to obtain a reseller account from a real host these days.

If you need simple hosting services for your web site and you prefer to have personal attention from the web host for design and programming then a reseller web hosting account is highly recommended. However, if you have a business website that requires complex e-commerce solutions, have a very large number of customers accessing your web site or you have a large number of websites to be hosted, a reseller hosting would probably not suffice. This is particularly true for e-businesses. For this, you need a real host provider for your web site.

Linux – Eminent Choice Or Not?

07.07.2010 (6:39 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized ::

Linux has been something like monotony nowadays. Its fame makes it being the talk of the town – various Linux downloads, Linux programs, etc… And what’s great about this is – it’s all for free! However, free programs or software would always come to an end due to the rising number of users as well as the demands them constantly plea. There will really come a time that some of them will be priced just right for its effectiveness and usage. But that won’t tremble any of the existing and satisfied users of Linux because they already know how great it is to use such system.

Most of today’s Linux subscribers were actually using other operating systems and decided to transfer to Linux because of some annoying experiences. You can almost hear their murmurs whenever they talk about their previous systems. A complaint from a lady in her workplace have been heard telling that she got all fed up and totally annoyed with her current operating system and thinks of migrating to Linux. No worries at all because I think it’s just so easy to do it. Another thing is, switching to Linux can be very fast for her since she’s not using the software herself.

Beforehand, switching to Linux will require you to take a closer look around your software as well as to make some research about this new operating system. You should be aware of the software that are compatible with this new OS. Will your software run faster, or will be more user-friendly and effective once you transfer to this new system? Consider the advantages and disadvantages before you finally decide.

A large number of Linux software usually comes for free. And yes, they are indeed FREE! But are that free software doesn’t bother you at all? A colleague once mentioned that the more ‘free’ a software becomes, the more it is prone to get affected by some malicious programs. So before planning to use Linux, better watch out for these unwanted possibilities.

Another thing to consider is the commands that Linux has. Since it is new, there’s a possibility that some of its commands are different from your old OS. You have to get familiar with it first and then see to it that it has some sort of a familiar environment with your previous operating system. In that way, you won’t be caught something like grasping for breath because you have experienced a shock after suddenly switching to something you aren’t familiar with yet. So, it would be better to check everything out in order to get all things done – safely.

Anyhow, if you think you are ready enough to switch and try something new, then better opt for something that have positive feedbacks. Try to look at the bright side of your choice. Don’t worry too much about some adverse comments, for as long as you know that you, yourself can handle any problems that may occur (we could never really get rid of any unexpected failures). Consider the point that Linux has been very congenial to its users and is very friendly to the budget too. You won’t have to fret since some of its software are still offered for free (to download and to use as well).

I guess, the best thing to do primordially is to seek for valuable inputs about the Linux OS. Search and read a lot of reviews. Visit those sites that have favorable recommendations as well as some critics about this new operating system. Check out for software compatibilities and make sure that you’ve done checking the list of important software that you have – of which ones are and are not compatible with Linux. Better be ready before deciding to make a shift.

To finish this off, it will make sense to weigh all the odds and to consider the possibilities first before deciding to switch for Linux. A dissatisfied OS user (of another system) may opt for Linux to try its proficiency and effectiveness. He may go through a lot of new commands to learn and get familiar with, yet the important thing is, he is happy and comfortable with his choice. Well, the bottom lines for this is – if you are already fed up with what you currently have and is already annoyed of its performance, then why stick to that when you have greater options to choose from? So to speak, Linux may have been waiting for you all along.

How To Get The Best Hosted Exchange

03.07.2010 (6:51 am) – Filed under: Uncategorized ::

Business needs the clear advantage that they can get from the right hosted exchange model. That means that the savvy businessman shops on the Internet for the right hosted exchange service that has all the features they know will increase their competitive mode.

There are several of these features that any business needs to look for and these include:

The best reputation. You need to be sure that you can find a place that has a great reputation and you can start doing this by looking at their website. The best of these hosted exchange models will have testimonials placed on the website from past satisfied customers. This is one of the best ways that you’ll be able to tell if the hosted exchange providers that you’re dealing with are the best for you.
A great inventory. It’s great when you see that you can get a hosted exchange that has all the angles covered and an inventory that includes the best in active sync features as well. It’s good to remember that you need to get the best when it comes to this option because your network is more than likely worldwide.

There are several other things that you need to look at when you’re going to get the best hosted exchange and one of them is customer service. It’s important to remember that you need to have a place working with you that has both an e-mail address and telephone number so you can get in touch with the people there through live phone support regardless of the time or day or night.

You also want to be able to pick a company that has a certain air of confidence about it as far as hosted exchange goes, and that means when you see place that offers a thirty day money back guarantee you can be sure that they are confident about what they are selling.

In the end finding the right hosted exchange means that you need to consider a few different variables so that you can find the best package possible. It also means that you’ll need to look through the different websites that are offering you this application to find the one that has the most of these features in one place. As far as hosted exchange goes, you’ll need to find a hosted exchange company that can give you the business advantage that you need.